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Respiratory disorders usually manifest with the following symptoms, when they present you should seek the help of a pulmonologist.

Depending on the duration of the symptoms, dyspnoea is distinguished as acute or chronic. Depending on the physical effort that is required to cause/ trigger the symptom this could be identified as dyspnoea at rest or at exertion. Other types of dyspnoea are paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnoea (breathing that occurs during sleep) and orthopnoea, in which the patient is raised from his bed with an intense feeling of lack of air.

Any other patient with dyspnoea may experience other symptoms such as tachycardia, tachypnoea, cyanosis and fever. During the clinical examination, it is possible to observe a decrease in the mobility of one hemi-thorax, the use secondary breathing muscles and wheezing.

Causes of dyspnoea
ALL CONDITIONS OF THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and heart diseases (heart failure, infarction) 
Of other systems (anemia, hyperthyroidism, obesity, upper airways obstruction) 
Or psychogenic (panic attack). 
In any case, the patient should undergo complete clinical and laboratory testing including medical history, clinical examination, chest X-ray, spirometry and other specific test that the physician will deem necessary.


Cough is the intense and violent expiratory effort aimed at removing secretions, harmful substances and foreign bodies from the lungs. Cough is characterized as dry or productive when accompanied by sputum discharge and as acute or chronic when it lasts more than 3 weeks.

Viral and microbial infections of the upper and lower respiratory tract 
Asthma - Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

Interstitial lung diseases. Pulmonary fibrosis, sarcoidosis 
Foreign body in the bronchial tree 
Lung Cancer 
Gastroesophageal reflux. 
Congestive heart failure - valvular disease 

Drug side effects 
Psychogenic cough

Hemoptysis is the expectoration of blood with coughing. The blood may be red (vivid or dark) or sputum with blood. Usually the amount of blood is small, but there are cases where hemoptysis is large and life-threatening. When someone observes haemoptysis he/she should seek immediate medical attention.

The most common causes of haemoptysis are:
Chronic bronchitis (smokers) 

Taking anticoagulants

Less common causes are
Cardiovascular diseases: mitral stenosis 
Pulmonary embolism 
Blood clotting disorders 
Lung Cancer 
Autoimmune diseases 

Use of narcotic drugs

It is the result of the forced passage of air through narrowed airways into the lungs. A sound described by the patient as a wheezing.

What can cause wheezing:

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)
Chronic or acute bronchitis
Foreign body in the bronchi
Lung cancer
High airway obstruction
Heart Failure (Cardiac Asthma)


Expectoration is a mixture of secretions from the tracheobronchial tree that is excreted with a cough. Normally, a small amount of mucus (sputum) is produced daily to remove harmful substances and particles from the bronchial tree without causing cough. In the case of an infection or inflammation of the bronchi, a large amount of sputum is produced which is removed by coughing. Sputum is characterized by the consistency, which can be foamy, watery, mucous and pussy, depending on their color white, yellowish, green, brown, and depending on their quantity and duration.

Common causes of expectoration:
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)
Upper and lower respiratory infections

Chest pain is divided into two major categories. One is not affected by respiratory movements and is permanent and the other is affected by respiratory movements, and in particular by deep inhalation, i.e intermittent. In the first category are the pain of infarction, pneumothorax, lung cancer, pleural effusion. Intermittent pain is a characteristic of pulmonary embolism, inflammation of the pleura (mainly in infections), chest wall injuries and other more rare conditions.